Difference between revisions of "Anthropogenic emissions"

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On this page we list information about the various  
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On this page we list information about the various anthropogenic emissions inventories available for use in GEOS-Chem.
[http://acmg.seas.harvard.edu/geos/word_pdf_docs/emissions_v8_02_03.pdf anthropogenic emissions inventories available for use w/ GEOS-Chem v8-02-03] and higher versions.
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== Global inventories ==
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== Supported inventories ==
  
=== GEIA/Piccot ===
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=== Global inventories ===
  
This is the baseline anthropogenic emissions inventory in GEOS-Chem.  It can be overwritten with NOx, CO, and SOx from the [[#EDGAR|global EDGAR emissions inventory]], as well as from the various [[#Regional inventories|regional emissions inventories]].
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*[[CEDS anthropogenic emissions]]
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*[[EDGAR anthropogenic emissions]]
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*[http://edgar.jrc.ec.europa.eu/htap_v2/index.php?SECURE=123 HTAP anthropogenic emissions]
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*[[MASAGE NH3 inventory]]
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*[https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/full/10.1002/2016JD025767 C2H6 2010]
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*[http://acmg.seas.harvard.edu/publications/2007/xiao.2007b.pdf Xiao C3H8]
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*[http://ftp.as.harvard.edu/gcgrid/data/ExtData/HEMCO/TrashEmis/v2015-03/Trash_emissions_readme.pdf Trash burning emissions]
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*[[RCP_future_emissions_scenarios|RCP future emissions]]
  
Description from [http://acmg.seas.harvard.edu/publications/wang1998a.pdf ''Wang et al <nowiki>[1998]</nowiki>]:
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=== Regional inventories ===
  
<blockquote>A global NOx emission inventory (21 Tg N/yr) from fossil fuel combustion has been compiled by the Global Emission Inventory Activity [''Benkovitz et al'' 1996] with a 1&deg; x 1&deg; resolution....</blockquote>
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We recommend using regional inventories where possible to overwrite global emissions inventories in specific regions of the world.
  
<blockquote>Our global CO emission inventory includes 390 TG CO/yr from fossil fuel combustion and industrial activities and 130 Tg CO/yr from wood fuel burning.  This inventory has a resolution of 1&deg; x 1&deg; and is aseasonal....</blockquote>
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*[[CAC_anthropogenic_emissions#Historical_Canadian_emissions|APEI Canadian emissions]]
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*[[DICE-Africa anthropogenic emissions inventory]]
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*[[EPA/NEI11 North American emissions]]
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*[[MIX Asian anthropogenic emissions]]
  
<blockquote>We adopted the country-by-country inventory of ''Piccot et al'' [1992] for emissions of paraffins (45 Tg C/yr) and olefins (18 Tg C/yr) from fossil fuel combustion and industrial activity.  The emissions within each country were distributed on the basis of population density using a 1&deg; x 1&deg; population map [''Benkovitz et al'' 1996].  The ''Piccot et al'' inventory gives no information on the speciation of paraffins and olefins; a speciation of emissions for the United states is, however, available from NAPAP [''Middleton et al'' 1990]....On the basis of [additional data from Harvard Forest], we modify the NAPAP apportionment of paraffins....Assuming the NHMC speciation for the United States to be globally representative, we deduce global emission rates of 6.3 Tg C/yr of Ethane, 6.8 Tg C/yr of propane, 30 Tg C/yr of >=C4 alkanes, 1.0 Tg C/yr of acetone, 1.0 Tg C/yr of higher ketones, and 10.4 Tg C/yr of >=C3 alkenes.</blockquote>
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== Retired inventories ==
  
'''''References:'''''
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The following emission inventories has been retired from GEOS-Chem because they are outdated or have been superseded by another inventory.
  
*Benkovitz, C. M., M. T. Scholtz, J. Pacyna, L. Tarrason, J. Dignon, E. C. Voldner, P. A. Spiro, J. A. Logan, and T. E. Graedel, ''Global gridded inventories of anthropogenic emissions of sulfur and nitrogen, <u>J. Geophys. Res.</u>, '''101'''(D22), 29,239-29,253, 1996.
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=== Global inventories ===
*Middleton, P., W.R. Stockwell, and W.P.L. Carter, ''Aggregation and analysis of volatile organic carbon emissions for regional modeling'', <u>Atmos. Env.</u>,  '''24A''', 1107-1133, 1990.
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*Piccot, S.D., J.J. Watson, and J.W. Jones.  ''A global inventory of volatile organic compound emissions from anthropogenic sources'', <u>J. Geophys. Res.</u>, '''97''', 9897-9912, 1992.
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*Wang, Y., D.J. Jacob, and J.A. Logan, ''Global simulation of tropospheric O3-NOx-hydrocarbon chemistry, 1. Model formulation'', <u>J. Geophys. Res.</u>, '''103''', D9,10,713-10,726, 1998. [http://acmg.seas.harvard.edu/publications/wang1998a.pdf PDF]
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=== EDGAR ===
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*[[Implementation_of_RETRO_Anthropogenic_Emissions|RETRO anthropogenic VOC emissions]] (retired in [[GEOS-Chem 12#12.5.0|GEOS-Chem 12.5.0]])
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*[http://acmg.seas.harvard.edu/publications/2007/xiao.2007b.pdf Xiao C2H6] (retired in [[GEOS-Chem 12#12.5.0|GEOS-Chem 12.5.0]])
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*[http://acmg.seas.harvard.edu/publications/1998/wang1998a.pdf GEIA/Piccot]
  
Emissions Database for Global Atmospheric Research (EDGAR) inventory.
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=== Regional inventories ===
  
The EDGAR emissions of NOx, CO, and SOx are typically used instead of the [[#GEIA/Piccot|GEIA/Piccot emissions]]. However, the EDGAR emissions are typically overwritten by data from the [[#Regional inventories|regional emissions inventories]] listed below.
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*[[EMEP European anthropogenic emissions]]  (retired in [[GEOS-Chem 12#12.5.0|GEOS-Chem 12.5.0]])
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*[http://www.geos-chem.org/wiki_docs/emissions/BRAVOEI_Report_d2.pdf BRAVO] (retired in [[GEOS-Chem 12#12.2.0|GEOS-Chem 12.2.0]])
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*[[CAC anthropogenic emissions]] (retired in [[GEOS-Chem v11-02#v11-02f|GEOS-Chem v11-02f]] )
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*[[David Streets regional emissions for China and SE Asia]]
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*[[EPA/NEI08 North American emissions]]
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*[[EPA/NEI05 North American emissions]]
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*[[EPA/NEI99 North American emissions]]
  
The EDGAR inventory also includes [[Ship emissions#EDGAR|emissions from ship exhaust]].
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== Scale factors ==
  
'''''References:'''''
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*[[Scale factors for anthropogenic emissions]]
 
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*Olivier, J.G.J. and J.J.M. Berdowski, ''Global emissions sources and sinks''. In: Berdowski, J., Guicherit, R. and B.J. Heij (eds.) <u>The Climate System</u>, pp. 33-78. A. A. Balkema Publishers/Swets & Zeitlinger Publishers, Lisse, The Netherlands., 2001
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* A related document can be found here: [http://wiki.seas.harvard.edu/geos-chem/images/EDGAR_emis.pdf EDGAR description (pdf)]
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* Aaron van Donkelaar has created a [http://acmg.seas.harvard.edu/geos/wiki_docs/emissions/Summary_of_EDGAR_Effects.pdf PDF document] that shows some of the effects of using the EDGAR emissions.
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--[[User:Bmy|Bob Y.]] 13:37, 17 March 2010 (EDT)
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== Regional inventories ==
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These inventories can be used to "overwrite" the [[#Global inventories|global emissions inventories]] in specific regions of the world.
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'''''We recommend that you turn on the regional emissions (e.g. BRAVO, CAC, EPA/NEI05, EMEP, etc.), which will override the default underlying global emissions (e.g. EDGAR).'''''  To select these emissions inventories, you will have to modify the EMISSIONS MENU section of the <tt>input.geos</tt> input file.  For detailed instructions, please see [http://acmg.seas.harvard.edu/geos/doc/man/chapter_5.html#5.2.1.5 Section 5.2.1.5 of the GEOS-Chem Users' Guide].
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=== BRAVO ===
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Big Bend Regional Aerosol and Visibility Observational (BRAVO) Study Emissions Inventory for Mexico and some neighboring U.S. states.
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'''''References:'''''
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* ''Big Bend Regional Aerosol and Visibility Observational (BRAVO) Study Emissions Inventory'', H. Kuhns, M. Green, and V. Etyemezian, 2003. [http://www.geos-chem.org/wiki_docs/emissions/BRAVOEI_Report_d2.pdf PDF]
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=== CAC ===
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The Criteria Air Contaminants (CAC) inventory is a regional inventory of anthropogenic emissions over Canada.  For more information about the data files, please see [ftp://ftp.as.harvard.edu/pub/geos-chem/data/GEOS_1x1/CAC_200801/README this README file].
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'''''References:'''''
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* [http://www.ec.gc.ca/inrp-npri/default.asp?lang=En&n=4A577BB9-1 Source data at Environment Canada]
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=== David Streets ===
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There are 3 implementations of the David Streets inventory:
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==== Streets 2000 ====
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This was the original inventory.  See this paper for more information.
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* Streets, D.G., T.C. Bond, G.R. Carmichael, S.D. Fernandes, Q. Fu, Z. Klimont, S.M. Nelson, N.Y. Tsai, M.Q. Wang, J-H. Woo, and K.F. Yarber, ''An inventory of gaseous and primary aerosol emissions in Asia in the year 2000'', <u>J. Geophys. Res</u>, '''108''', D21, doi:10.1029/2002JD003093, 2003.
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This is the latest inventory available for anthropogenic ammonia (NH3) emissions over Asia. It does not include any seasonal cycle, which for NH3 results in overestimates in winter and underestimates in spring, due to the annual cycle of agricultural activity. We correct this by using the annual total from Streets 2000 but with superimposed monthly scale factors from a global inventory compiled by Marcel Meinders and Lex Bouwman. Their inventory has not been published, but applies seasonal variation based on the length of the growing season for fertilizer use and on temperature and wind speed for everything else. This fix will be standard in v9-02-01. For more information, see:
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* Fisher, J.A., Jacob, D.J., Wang, Q., et al. ''Sources, distribution, and acidity of sulfate-ammonium aerosol in the Arctic in winter-spring'', <u>Atmos. Environ.</u>, submitted, 2011.
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--[[User:Jaf|Jenny F.]] 17:00, 20 January 2011 (EST)
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==== Streets 2001 ====
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This inventory was issued to update under-estimated China CO in the Streets 2000.  Therefore, this data set only covers China.  For the rest of SE Asia, the Streets 2000 is used.  See this reference for more information:
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* Streets, D.G, Q. Zhang, L. Wang, K. He, J. Hao, Y. Wu, Y. Tang, and G.C. Carmichael, ''Revisiting China's CO emissions after the Transport and Chemical Evolution over the Pacific (TRACE-P) mission: Synthesis of inventories, atmospheric modeling, and observations'', <u>J. Geophys. Res</u>, '''111''', D14306, doi:10.1029/2006JD007118, 2006.
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==== Streets 2006 ====
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This is the most recent inventory.  NOTE: Anthropogenic and biofuel emissions are lumped together, so when you use this in GEOS-Chem, you have to zero out the biofuel emissions.  This is done in the <tt>streets_anthro_mod.f</tt> already. 
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The Streets 2006 inventory will be used by the code automatically for dates past Jan 1, 2006.  You may also set the emissions base year to 2006 manually in the <tt>input.geos</tt> file.
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See these references for more information:
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* INTEX-B, http://mic.greenresource.cn/intex-b2006; or http://www.cgrer.uiowa.edu/EMISSION_DATA_new/index_16.html
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* Zhang, Q., Streets, D. G., Carmichael, G. R., He, K. B., Huo, H., Kannari, A., Klimont, Z., Park, I. S., Reddy, S., Fu, J. S., Chen, D., Duan, L., Lei, Y., Wang, L. T., and Yao, Z. L.: ''Asian emissions in 2006 for the NASA INTEX-B mission'', <u>Atmos. Chem. Phys.</u>, '''9''', 5131-5153, 2009.
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=== EMEP ===
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The Co-operative Programme for Monitoring and Evaluation of the Long-range Transmission of Air Pollutants in Europe (EMEP) inventory for Europe.
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The EMEP inventory also includes [[Ship emissions#EMEP|emissions from ship exhaust]].
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NOTE: The EMEP emissions data have been extended to the year 2007 in [[GEOS-Chem v8-03-01]] and higher versions.
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'''''References:'''''
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*Auvray, M., and I. Bey, ''Long-Range Transport to Europe: Seasonal Variations and Implications for the European Ozone Budget'', <u>J. Geophys. Res.</u>, '''110''', D11303, doi: 10.1029/2004JD005503, 2005.
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* Vestreng, V., and H. Klein (2002), ''Emission data reported to UNECE/EMEP: Quality assurance and trend analysis & Presentation of WebDab'', <u>MSC-W Status Report 2002</u>, Norwegian Meteorological Institute, Oslo Norway, July 2002. [http://www.emep.int/publ/reports/2002/mscw_note_1_2002.pdf PDF]
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*Vestreng et al., ''EMEP 2005 expert emissions'', 2007. (need full citation!)
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=== EPA/NEI05 ===
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Please visit our page for the [[EPA/NEI05 North American emissions]].
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=== EPA/NEI99 ===
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Please visit our page for the [[EPA/NEI99 North American emissions]].
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== Annual scale factors for anthropogenic emissions inventories ==
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'''''Please see our new [[Scale factors for anthropogenic emissions]] wiki page for the latest information about scale factors for anthropogenic emissions inventories used in GEOS-Chem.'''''
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The " => Scale to (1985-2005)" option in input.geos will scale all anthropogenic emissions to the year that you select, unless data for that year exists. If you enter a negative number (recommended), emissions will be automatically scaled to the closest-to-simulation year and/or the best base year is selected when several are available in one inventory (like EMEP). It is recommended to set this field to -1 or 2006 for simulations after 2005, so that all inventories are scaled to 2005, and STREETS 2006 is used in SE ASIA.
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Here is a brief explanation from van Donkelaar et al., ACPD, 8, 4017-4057, 2008:
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<blockquote>We scale all regional and global inventories from their respective base year to 2003, the last year of available statistics, unless its base year is after 2003. Our approach follows Bey et al. (2001) and Park et al. (2004). Emissions are scaled according to estimates provided by individual countries, where available. These countries/regions include the United States, Canada, Japan and Europe. NOx emissions of remaining countries are scaled proportional to changes in total CO2 emissions. SOx emissions are similarly scaled to solid fuel CO2 emissions and CO emissions to liquid fuel CO2 emissions. CO2 emission data are obtained from the Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (CDIAC).</blockquote>
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Note that the scale factor have been updated since that paper to go up to 2005, and are based on REAS data now for South East Asia:
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Relative changes in the REAS inventory (Ohara et al., ACP, [2007], http://www.jamstec.go.jp/frsgc/research/d4/reas_h_a.html) over East Asia
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have been used. This should be a good improvement as REAS emissions are gridded, rather than national scale emissions, giving us much better spatial detail.  Also, these scalars are now based on actual NOx, SOx and CO emission estimates, not strictly an assumed proportionality between total, solid and liquid CO2 emissions.
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== Other resources ==
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Please see the following references for more information about anthropogenic emissions in GEOS-Chem:
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# [http://acmg.seas.harvard.edu/geos/word_pdf_docs/emissions_v8_02_03.pdf Anthropogenic emissions in GEOS-Chem v8-02-03]
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# [http://wiki.seas.harvard.edu/geos-chem/images/Anth_emiss_gc_v8-01-04.pdf Anthropogenic emissions in GEOS-Chem v8-01-04]
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# [http://acmg.seas.harvard.edu/geos/word_pdf_docs/INVENTORY_GC_public-pre_v8.pdf Anthropogenic emissions prior to v8-01-01]
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Latest revision as of 16:24, 15 October 2019

On this page we list information about the various anthropogenic emissions inventories available for use in GEOS-Chem.

Supported inventories

Global inventories

Regional inventories

We recommend using regional inventories where possible to overwrite global emissions inventories in specific regions of the world.

Retired inventories

The following emission inventories has been retired from GEOS-Chem because they are outdated or have been superseded by another inventory.

Global inventories

Regional inventories

Scale factors