Anthropogenic emissions

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On this page we list information about the various anthropogenic emissions inventories available for use w/ GEOS-Chem v8-02-03 and higher versions.

Global inventories

Each of these global inventories is now compatible with the HEMCO emissions component.

Inventory Base Year Region Resolution NOx CO PRPE C3H8 ALK4 C2H6 ACET MEK ALD2 CH2O BENZ TOLU XYLE C2H4 C2H2 SO2 SO4 NH3 BC/OC CH4 NMVOC PM10/
PM2.5
Variability
EDGAR v3 2000 global 1° x 1° x x x season (NOx, SOx)
EDGAR v4.2 1970-2008 global 0.1° x 0.1° x x x x season (NOx, SOx, NH3)
HTAP v2 2008, 2010 global 0.1° x 0.1° x x x x x x x x season (NOx, SOx, NH3)
MASAGE NH3 2006 global 2° x 2.5° x month
RETRO 2000 global 1° x 1° x x x x x x x x x x x x month
GEIA 1985 global 1° x 1° x x x x x x x x x x x season (NOx, SOx)


EDGAR

Please see our EDGAR anthropogenic emissions wiki page for more information about the Emissions Database for Global Atmospheric Research (EDGAR) inventory.

--Bob Y. 11:39, 20 December 2012 (EST)

HTAP

The EDGAR Team has compiled the HTAP v2 emission inventory based on MICS-Asia, EPA-US/Canada and TNO data.

--Melissa Sulprizio 17:49, 11 February 2015 (EST)

MASAGE NH3

Please see our MASAGE NH3 inventory wiki page for more information about the Magnitude And Seasonality of AGricultural Emissions model for NH3 (MASAGE NH3) inventory.

--Melissa Sulprizio 12:48, 13 February 2015 (EST)

RETRO

RETRO anthropogenic VOC emissions are the recommended default for anthropogenic VOC emissions. The RETRO inventory has improved temporal and spatial resolution and a more inclusive suite of speciated NMVOCs than many of the other optional inventories.

GEIA/Piccot

Previously, this was the baseline anthropogenic emissions inventory in GEOS-Chem.

Description from Wang et al [1998]:

A global NOx emission inventory (21 Tg N/yr) from fossil fuel combustion has been compiled by the Global Emission Inventory Activity [Benkovitz et al 1996] with a 1° x 1° resolution....
Our global CO emission inventory includes 390 TG CO/yr from fossil fuel combustion and industrial activities and 130 Tg CO/yr from wood fuel burning. This inventory has a resolution of 1° x 1° and is aseasonal....
We adopted the country-by-country inventory of Piccot et al [1992] for emissions of paraffins (45 Tg C/yr) and olefins (18 Tg C/yr) from fossil fuel combustion and industrial activity. The emissions within each country were distributed on the basis of population density using a 1° x 1° population map [Benkovitz et al 1996]. The Piccot et al inventory gives no information on the speciation of paraffins and olefins; a speciation of emissions for the United states is, however, available from NAPAP [Middleton et al 1990]....On the basis of [additional data from Harvard Forest], we modify the NAPAP apportionment of paraffins....Assuming the NHMC speciation for the United States to be globally representative, we deduce global emission rates of 6.3 Tg C/yr of Ethane, 6.8 Tg C/yr of propane, 30 Tg C/yr of >=C4 alkanes, 1.0 Tg C/yr of acetone, 1.0 Tg C/yr of higher ketones, and 10.4 Tg C/yr of >=C3 alkenes.

References

  • Benkovitz, C. M., M. T. Scholtz, J. Pacyna, L. Tarrason, J. Dignon, E. C. Voldner, P. A. Spiro, J. A. Logan, and T. E. Graedel, Global gridded inventories of anthropogenic emissions of sulfur and nitrogen, J. Geophys. Res., 101(D22), 29,239-29,253, 1996.
  • Middleton, P., W.R. Stockwell, and W.P.L. Carter, Aggregation and analysis of volatile organic carbon emissions for regional modeling, Atmos. Env., 24A, 1107-1133, 1990.
  • Piccot, S.D., J.J. Watson, and J.W. Jones. A global inventory of volatile organic compound emissions from anthropogenic sources, J. Geophys. Res., 97, 9897-9912, 1992.
  • Wang, Y., D.J. Jacob, and J.A. Logan, Global simulation of tropospheric O3-NOx-hydrocarbon chemistry, 1. Model formulation, J. Geophys. Res., 103, D9,10,713-10,726, 1998. PDF

Regional inventories

These inventories (which are now compatible with the HEMCO emissions component) can be used to "overwrite" the global emissions inventories in specific regions of the world. We recommend that you turn on the regional emissions (e.g. BRAVO, CAC, EPA/NEI, EMEP, etc.), which will override the default underlying global emissions (e.g. EDGAR).

To select the regional emissions inventories, follow the steps below.


Inventory Base Year Region NOx NO NO2 HNO2 CO PRPE C3H8 ALK4 C2H6 ACET MEK ALD2 CH2O SO2 SO4 NH3 BC,
OC
C2H4 RCH4 EOH MOH XYLE,
TOLU,
BENZ
RCHO CO2 CH4 N2O NMVOC PM10,
PM2.5
Variability
CAC 2002,2005 Canada x x x x
EMEP 1980-2005 Europe x x x x x x x x x month (NOx,SOx,CO,NH3)
EPA/NEI99 (ICARTT) 1999 (2004) USA x x x x x x x x x x x x month, weekday/weekend
EPA/NEI2005 2005 USA x x x x x x x x x x x x month, weekday/weekend
EPA/NEI2008 2006, 2010 USA x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x hourly, weekday/weekend
EPA/NEI2011 2011 USA x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x hourly, weekday/weekend
VISTAS 2002 USA x month
BRAVO 1999 Mexico x x x
STREETS 2000 (2004) 2000 (2004) S.E. Asia x x x x month (NOx,CO,NH3)
STREETS 2006 2006 S.E. Asia x x x x x x x x x x x month (NOx,CO)
MIX v1.1 2008, 2010 S.E. Asia x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x month
COOKE 1996 N. America x month


BRAVO

Big Bend Regional Aerosol and Visibility Observational (BRAVO) Study Emissions Inventory for Mexico and some neighboring U.S. states.

  • Big Bend Regional Aerosol and Visibility Observational (BRAVO) Study Emissions Inventory, H. Kuhns, M. Green, and V. Etyemezian, 2003. PDF

CAC

The Criteria Air Contaminants (CAC) inventory is a regional inventory of anthropogenic emissions over Canada. For more information about the data files, please see this README file.

Ammonia emissions

This update was tested in the 1-month benchmark simulation v9-02l and approved on 26 Jun 2013.

The latest anthropogenic ammonia (NH3) emissions inventory over Canada is provided by Agriculture Canada, acquired from detailed surveys on monthly emissions of five agricultural categories: beef, dairy, fertilizer, poultry, and swine. For more information about the data files, please see this README file.

Update 29 Jul 2013: The 1-year benchmark for v9-02l revealed that Canadian NH3 emissions were not varying with season as expected. Wai Ho Lo has reprocessed the data files for the CAC NH3 emissions. These new emission files are included in GEOS-Chem v9-02 (tested with benchmark v9-02r, which was approved on 14 Dec 2013).

--Melissa Sulprizio 18:20, 29 July 2013 (EDT)

David Streets

Please see our David Streets regional emissions for China and SE Asia wiki page for information about the regional inventories created by David Streets and colleagues.

--Bob Y. 11:20, 20 December 2012 (EST)

MIX

The MIX Asian emission inventory was developer for the Model Inter-Comparison Study for Asia (MICS-ASIA III) and the Task Force Hemispheric Transport of Air Pollution (TF HTAP v2) projects. This inventory was prepared by Qiang Zhang and Meng Li from Tsinghua University. For more information about the data files, please see this README file.

--Melissa Sulprizio 17:28, 11 February 2015 (EST)

EMEP

Please see our EMEP European anthropogenic emissions wiki page for more information about The Co-operative Programme for Monitoring and Evaluation of the Long-range Transmission of Air Pollutants in Europe (EMEP) European emissions inventory.

--Bob Y. 12:17, 20 December 2012 (EST)

EPA/NEI11

Please visit our page for the EPA/NEI11 North American emissions.

EPA/NEI08

Please visit our page for the EPA/NEI08 North American emissions.

EPA/NEI05

Please visit our page for the EPA/NEI05 North American emissions.

EPA/NEI99

Please visit our page for the EPA/NEI99 North American emissions.

Annual scale factors for anthropogenic emissions inventories

Please see our Scale factors for anthropogenic emissions wiki page for the latest information about scale factors for anthropogenic emissions inventories used in GEOS-Chem.

The " => Scale to (1985-2005)" option in input.geos will scale all anthropogenic emissions to the year that you select, unless data for that year exists. If you enter a negative number (recommended), emissions will be automatically scaled to the closest-to-simulation year and/or the best base year is selected when several are available in one inventory (like EMEP). It is recommended to set this field to -1 or 2006 for simulations after 2005, so that all inventories are scaled to 2005, and STREETS 2006 is used in SE ASIA.

Here is a brief explanation from van Donkelaar et al., ACPD, 8, 4017-4057, 2008:

We scale all regional and global inventories from their respective base year to 2003, the last year of available statistics, unless its base year is after 2003. Our approach follows Bey et al. (2001) and Park et al. (2004). Emissions are scaled according to estimates provided by individual countries, where available. These countries/regions include the United States, Canada, Japan and Europe. NOx emissions of remaining countries are scaled proportional to changes in total CO2 emissions. SOx emissions are similarly scaled to solid fuel CO2 emissions and CO emissions to liquid fuel CO2 emissions. CO2 emission data are obtained from the Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (CDIAC).

Note that the scale factor have been updated since that paper to go up to 2005, and are based on REAS data now for South East Asia:

Relative changes in the REAS inventory (Ohara et al., ACP, [2007], http://www.jamstec.go.jp/frsgc/research/d4/reas_h_a.html) over East Asia have been used. This should be a good improvement as REAS emissions are gridded, rather than national scale emissions, giving us much better spatial detail. Also, these scalars are now based on actual NOx, SOx and CO emission estimates, not strictly an assumed proportionality between total, solid and liquid CO2 emissions.

Seasonal scale factors for anthropogenic emissions inventories

Seasonal scale factors are described on the Scale factors for anthropogenic emissions wiki page.

Diurnal variation for anthropogenic NOx emissions

The diurnal variation for NOx is described on the Scale factors for anthropogenic emissions wiki page.

Other resources

This information is now obsolete; we shall leave it here for future reference.

— Bob Yantosca, 13 February 2015

Please see the following references for more information about anthropogenic emissions in GEOS-Chem:

  1. Anthropogenic emissions in GEOS-Chem v8-02-03
  2. Anthropogenic emissions in GEOS-Chem v8-01-04
  3. Anthropogenic emissions prior to v8-01-01

Previous issues that are now resolved

Anthropogenic ethane emissions are too low

This update was tested in the 1-month benchmark simulation v9-01-03i and approved on 26 Mar 2012.

In addition to RETRO anthropogenic ethane emissions being too low, Emily Fischer found that ethane emissions in the EPA/NEI2005, Streets, and EMEP regional inventories are also too low. Therefore, these regional ethane emissions should not overwrite the global anthropogenic ethane emissions provided by Yaping Xiao. This update is slated for implementation into GEOS-Chem v9-01-03, as part of the update to replace RETRO C2H6 emissions with emissions from the offline C2H6 simulation.

Prevent negative emissions over Canada

In GEOS-Chem v10-01 and newer versions, CAC emissions are now handled by the HEMCO emissions component.

— Bob Yantosca, 17 February 2015

This update was tested in the 1-month benchmark simulation v9-02m and approved on 30 Jul 2013. This update is included in Adjoint v35.

Fabien Paulot wrote:

I think I found a nasty bug in CAC emissions. I am getting negative emissions, for 200611 for all anthropogenic species in Canada (standard code v9.1.3). I think this is related to line 413, where some linear interpolation is performed, assuming that 2005 emissions will be greater than 2002 emissions in every grid box.
We should set the emissions to 0 when 2002 exceeds 2005 by more than a factor of three.
Anyway, the bug will get worse and worse after 2006.

Christoph Keller wrote:

I didn't check it quantitatively, but this makes sense!
What if we add a simple where statement after line 413:
   WHERE ( GEOS_1x1 < 0d0 )
      GEOS_1x1 = 0d0
   END WHERE

Fabien Paulot wrote:

Yes this would work. I haven't checked the nested simulation. There may be an error there too.
Note this will only affect 2006 and 2007

--Melissa Payer 13:51, 23 March 2012 (EDT)

Outstanding issues not yet resolved