Volcanic SO2 emissions

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On this page we describe the volcanic emissions inventories that are used by GEOS-Chem.

OMI-based volcanic emissions

Volcano emissions are obtained from NASA/GMAO. See the latest directory's README file in [1] for details on how these files were created.

The emission inventory is available as daily text (.rc) files in the format:

  ###  LAT (-90,90), LON (-180,180), SULFUR [kg S/s], ELEVATION [m], CLOUD_COLUMN_HEIGHT [m]
  ### If elevation=cloud_column_height, emit in layer of elevation
  ### else, emit in top 1/3 of cloud_column_height
  50.170 6.850 3.587963e-03 600. 600.
  45.780 2.970 3.587963e-03 1464. 1464.
  42.170 2.530 3.587963e-03 893. 893.
  38.870 -4.020 3.587963e-03 1117. 1117.

The text files can be read directly into HEMCO via the Volcano (formerly AeroCom_Volcano) extension. It can be activated in the HEMCO extension section:

  117     Volcano           : on    SO2
      --> Volcano_Source    :       AeroCom
      --> Volcano_Table     :       $ROOT/VOLCANO/v2019-04/$YYYY/$MM/so2_volcanic_emissions_Carns.$YYYY$MM$DD.rc

The Volcano_Source option was added to specify OMI or AeroCom emissions. If OMI-based emissions are used then the closest available year will be used if the simulation year is outside of the available time period.

References for OMI volcano emissions

  1. Carn, S.A., K. Yang, A.J. Prata, and N.A. Krotkov, Extending the long-term record of volcanic SO2 emissions with the Ozone Mapping and Profiler Suite (OMPS) Nadir Mapper, Geophys. Res. Lett., 42, 925-932, doi:10.1002/2014GL062437, 2015.
  2. Carn, S., Multi-Satellite Volcanic Sulfur Dioxide L4 Long-Term Global Database V3, Greenbelt, MD, USA, Goddard Earth Science Data and Information Services Center (GES DISC), Accessed: 28 Feb 2019, 10.5067/MEASURES/SO2/DATA404, 2019.
  3. Ge, C., J. Wang, S. Carn, K. Yang, P. Ginoux, and N. Krotkov, Satellite-based global volcanic SO2 emissions and sulfate direct radiative forcing during 2005-2012, J. Geophys. Res. Atmos., 121(7), 3446-3464, doi:10.1002/2015JD023134, 2016. (PDF)