Biofuel emissions

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GEOS-Chem v11-02-final will also carry the designation GEOS-Chem 12.0.0. We are migrating to a purely numeric versioning system in order to adhere more closely to software development best practices. For a complete description of the new versioning system, please see our GEOS-Chem version numbering system wiki page.

This page describes the biofuel emissions inventories in GEOS-Chem.

NOTE: in GEOS-Chem v10-01 and higher versions, all emissions are handled by the HEMCO emissions component.

Yevich & Logan inventory

The default biofuel inventory in GEOS-Chem is the Yevich & Logan [2003] inventory. This can be overwritten by the EPA/NEI99 biofuel emissions over North America and/or by the Streets 2006 regional inventory over China/SE Asia.

Abstract from Yevich & Logan [2003]:

We present an assessment of biofuel use and agricultural field burning in the developing world. We used information from government statistics, energy assessments from the World Bank, and many technical reports, as well as from discussions with experts in agronomy, forestry, and agro-industries. We estimate that 2060 Tg biomass fuel was used in the developing world in 1985; of this, 66% was burned in Asia, and 21% and 13% in Africa and Latin America, respectively. Agricultural waste supplies about 33% of total biofuel use, providing 39%, 29%, and 13% of biofuel use in Asia, Latin America, and Africa, and 41% and 51% of the biofuel use in India and China.We find that 400 Tg of crop residues are burned in the fields, with the fraction of available residue burned in 1985 ranging from 1% in China, 16–30% in the Middle East and India, to about 70% in Indonesia; in Africa about 1% residue is burned in the fields of the northern drylands, but up to 50% in the humid tropics. We distributed this biomass burning on a spatial grid with resolution of 1° x 1° and applied emission factors to the amount of dry matter burned to give maps of trace gas emissions in the developing world. The emissions of CO from biofuel use in the developing world, 156 Tg, are about 50% of the estimated global CO emissions from fossil fuel use and industry. The emission of 0.9 Pg C (as CO2) from burning of biofuels and field residues together is small, but nonnegligible when compared with the emissions of CO2 from fossil fuel use and industry, 5.3 Pg C. The biomass burning source of 10 Tg/yr for CH4 and 2.2 Tg N/yr of NOx are relatively small when compared with total CH4 and NOx sources; this source of NOx may be important on a regional basis.

Important note: The Yevich & Logan 2003 inventory does not contain biofuels over the continental US, as these were historically included in the US gridded inventories of the time from EPA (NAPAP). If you wish to include biofuels over this region, you should make sure that the EPA/NEI99 or EPA/NEI05 emission inventories are switched on.

--Bob Y. 10:13, 8 February 2011 (EST)

EPA/NEI05 inventory

For more information about the biofuel emissions options available in the EPA/NEI05 North American emissions inventory, please see our EPA/NEI05 North American emissions wiki page.

--Bob Y. 11:12, 8 February 2011 (EST)

David Streets

The David Streets 2006 regional emissions inventory lumps anthropogenic and biofuel emissions together. Therefore, when you use this inventory, you must zero out the biofuel emissions. This is done in the streets_anthro_mod.f already.

Bond et al 2007 inventory

GEOS-Chem uses the Tami Bond et al (2007) inventory for biofuel emissions of black carbon and organic carbon. For more information about this inventory, please see our carbonaceous aerosols wiki page.


  1. Bond, T.C. et al, Historical emissions of black and organic carbon aerosol from energy-related combustion, 1850-2000, Global Biogeochem. Cycles, 21, GB2018, doi: 10.1029/2006GB002840, 2007.
  2. INTEX-B,; or
  3. Zhang, Q., Streets, D. G., Carmichael, G. R., He, K. B., Huo, H., Kannari, A., Klimont, Z., Park, I. S., Reddy, S., Fu, J. S., Chen, D., Duan, L., Lei, Y., Wang, L. T., and Yao, Z. L.: Asian emissions in 2006 for the NASA INTEX-B mission, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 9, 5131-5153, 2009.
  4. Yevich, R. and J. A. Logan, An assesment of biofuel use and burning of agricultural waste in the developing world, Global Biogeochem. Cycles, 17(4), 1095, doi:10.1029/2002GB001952, 2003. PDF

--Bob Y. 10:54, 8 February 2011 (EST)

Obsolete information

These sections pertain to code or data that has been removed from the most recent versions of GEOS-Chem. We shall keep this information here for reference.

EPA/NEI99 inventory


The EPA/NEI99 emissions have been superseded by the EPA/NEI11 emissions. We recommend that you use EPA/NEI11 in your research.

For more information about the biofuel emissions in the EPA/NEI99 inventory, we invite you to read our EPA/NEI99 North American emissions wiki page.

RETRO and RCP inventories


This issue was resolved with the implementation of the HEMCO emissions component into GEOS-Chem.

Chris Holmes wrote:

The RETRO and RCP inventories do not distinguish emissions from biofuel and fossil fuel. Emissions from both are combined in the RETRO and RCP input files and in the ND36 (ANTHSRCE) diagnostic. When using the RETRO or RCP global inventories, the default biofuel inventory (Yevich and Logan, 2003) is set to zero everywhere globally. When any of the regional inventories without biofuels overwrite the RETRO or RCP global inventory, then biofuels within the region are NOT included in GEOS-Chem because the biofuel inventory has been zeroed. All anthropogenic species (NOx, CO, VOCs, BC, OC, SO2, NH3) are affected when using RCP emissions. Only VOC emissions are affected when using RETRO.

--Bob Y. (talk) 15:23, 26 October 2015 (UTC)

Double counting of Streets biofuel emissions over Asia


This code was removed from GEOS-Chem v10-01 and newer versions. All biofuel emissions are now implemented via the HEMCO emissions component.

Please see this wiki post about a bug that was discovered in GEOS-Chem v9-01-01 that resulted in a double-counting of David Streets biofuel emissions over Asia. This issue will be corrected in GEOS-Chem v9-01-02.

--Bob Y. 10:41, 18 February 2011 (EST)