This page describes the various ship emissions inventories that have been implemented in GEOS-Chem.
- 1 Overview
- 2 ARCTAS
- 3 Corbett
- 4 EDGAR
- 5 ICOADS
- 6 PARANOX ship plume model
- 7 References
- 8 Previous issues that are now resolved
- 9 Outstanding issues not yet resolved
At present there are several different ship emissions options in GEOS-Chem. All of these are available for use via the HEMCO emissions component.
|Inventory||Species included||Year(s)||HEMCO Hierarchy||Notes|
|Currently-used ship emission inventories|
|CEDS||NO, CO, SOAP, SO2, SO4, pFe, NH3, BC, OC, CO2, CH4, EOH, C2H6, C3H8, ALK4, C2H4, PRPE, C2H2, BENZ, TOLU, XYLE, CH2O, ALD2, MEK, HCOOH||1950-2014||5||
|HTAP||CO, SOAP, SO2||2008-2010||4||
|Deprecated ship emission inventories|
|ICOADS||CO, SOAP, SO2||2002||2|
|EDGAR||NO, CO, SO2||1970-2010||N/A||
|EMEP||CO, SOAP, SO2||1990-2012||10||
|EPA/NEI2011||HNO2, CO, SOAP, NH3, CH2O, RCHO, MACR, ACET, C3H8, MEK, ALK4, PRPE, EOH, MOH, XYLE, TOLU, BENZ, SO2, SO4, pFe, C2H4, C2H6, ALD2, BC, OC||2006-2013||50||
The ARCTAS pre-mission inventory of SO2 was first introduced in GEOS-Chem v8-01-04.
Philippe Le Sager wrote:
The ship emission is based on the work by Eyring et al., [2005a and 2005b], which estimates the total international ship emissions for 1985, 1990, 2001, and 2020 (projection). The ship emission for each individual year is interpreted based on the above years, and the spatial pattern (gridded) is mapped based on the EDGAR gridded ship emission for 2000 (total amount from EDGAR is scaled to Eyring-based number).
If you want to reference the work on publication or website, you may either mention Diehl et al. [manuscript in preparation, 2009] or refer to the AeroCom readme document (prepared by Diehl).
In GEOS-Chem v10-01 and newer versions, the ARCTAS ship emissions data files are read with the HEMCO emissions component. We have created ARCTAS ship data files (in COARDS-compliant netCDF format) for use with HEMCO. These new data files are contained in the HEMCO data directory tree. For detailed instructions on how to download these data files to your disk server, please see our Downloading the HEMCO data directories wiki post.
--Bob Y. 13:21, 3 March 2015 (EST)
For more information about this inventory please see: Corbett, J. J., P. S. Fischbeck, and S. N. Pandis, Global nitrogen and sulfur inventories for oceangoing ships, J. Geophys. Res., 104(D3), 3457–3470, 1999.
In GEOS-Chem v10-01 and newer versions, the Corbett et al ship emissions data files are read with the HEMCO emissions component. We have created Corbett ship data files (in COARDS-compliant netCDF format) for use with HEMCO. These data files are contained in the HEMCO data directory tree. For detailed instructions on how to download these data files to your disk server, please see our Downloading the HEMCO data directories wiki post.
EDGAR v4.2 ship emissions
Please see this wiki post on our EDGAR v4.2 anthropogenic emissions wiki page for more information about EDGAR inventories of ship exhaust.
--Melissa Sulprizio 16:39, 17 February 2015 (EST)
EDGAR v3 ship emissions
Please see this wiki post on our EDGAR v3 anthropogenic emissions wiki page for more information about EDGAR inventories of ship exhaust.
--Bob Y. 12:29, 20 December 2012 (EST)
From Wang et al :
Ship activity patterns depicted by the International Comprehensive Ocean−Atmosphere Data Set (ICOADS), the Automated Mutual-Assistance Vessel Rescue System (AMVER) data set, and their combination demonstrate different spatial and statistical sampling biases. These differences could significantly affect the accuracy of ship emissions inventories and atmospheric modeling. We demonstrate (using ICOADS) a method to improve global-proxy representativeness by trimming over-reporting vessels that mitigates sampling bias, augment the sample data set, and account for ship heterogeneity. Apparent under-reporting to ICOADS and AMVER by ships near coastlines, perhaps engaged in coastwise (short sea) shipping especially in Europe, indicates that bottom-up regional inventories may be more representative locally. Primarily due to the long time series available publicly for ICOADS data, the improved ICOADS data set may be the most appropriate global ship traffic proxy identified to date to be used for a top-down approach. More generally, these three spatial proxies can be used together to perform uncertainty analyses of ship air-emissions impacts on a global scale (http://coast.cms.udel.edu/GlobalShipEmissions/).
In GEOS-Chem v10-01 and newer versions, the ICOADS ship emissions are read with the HEMCO emissions component. We have created ICOADS data files (in COARDS-compliant netCDF format) for use with HEMCO. These data files are contained in the HEMCO data directory tree. For detailed instructions on how to download these data files to your disk server, please see our Downloading the HEMCO data directories wiki post.
--Bob Y. 13:22, 3 March 2015 (EST)
PARANOX ship plume model
PARANOX updates by Chris Holmes and Geert Vinken (July 2014)
This post describes the original updates to PARANOX made by Chris Holmes and Geert Vinken in July 2014. These updates have since been brought into GEOS-Chem as an extension to the HEMCO emissions component.
Chris Holmes wrote:
- Geert and I have updated the ship plume emissions in GEOS-Chem. A paper based on the updated model is now accepted in ACP (see this link).
- The updated features are as follows:
- Ship plume chemical aging now depends on wind speed, which directly affects the plume dispersion rates and indirectly affects the plume chemistry.
- The underlying Gaussian plume model now includes dry deposition.
- NO, NO2, and O3 are all emitted separately, consistent with removing the NOx and Ox families in GC v9-02.
- The look-up tables are now in netCDF format.
- CH4 oxidation in ship plumes is now diagnosed and written in the paranox_ts files. This is only a diagnostic and does not affect the model chemistry.
- As with previous versions, PARANOX uses a look-up table derived from a Gaussian plume model to provide effective emission factors for NOx, O3, and HNO3 from ships. Both the Gaussian plume model and GEOS-Chem with the embedded look-up tables have been evaluated against observations (Holmes et al. 2014; Vinken et al., 2011). The emission factors are based on 8 environmental variables from the CTM: ambient concentrations of NOx and O3, solar zenith angle at emission time and 5 hours later, photolysis rates of NO2 and O3, temperature, and wind speed.
--Melissa Sulprizio 10:21, 18 June 2014 (EDT)
Re-implementation as a HEMCO extension
Christoph Keller and the GEOS-Chem Support Team have re-implemented the updated implementation of PARANOX described above as a HEMCO extension. A new HEMCO extension module (HEMCO/Extensions/hcox_paranox_mod.F90) has now replaced the original paranox_mod.F module.
New PARANOX lookup table files have been created in both COARDS-compliant netCDF format as well as in text format for use with HEMCO. These new data files are contained in the HEMCO data directory tree. For detailed instructions on how to download these data files to your disk server, please see our Downloading the HEMCO data directories wiki post.
--Bob Y. 13:23, 3 March 2015 (EST)
Discussion following 1-month benchmark v10-01h
Chris Holmes wrote:
- I sent in the updates to ship NOx chemistry (aka PARANOX). In the v10-01h benchmark plots I see that surface O3 concentrations in the North Pacific Ocean have decreased 20 ppb and concentrations are now 10 ppb or lower. The spatial pattern is consistent with ship emissions causing the change, but the magnitude is much larger than I expected based on the changes that I made. In my tests with v9-02, my updates to ship NOx chemistry change O3 by only 2 ppb.
- Are there other model changes that could have affected MBL chemistry? Did the underlying inventory of ship emissions change?
Christoph Keller wrote:
- Thanks for looking into this. Do you think that PARANOX now destroys more O3, or produces more?
- In anticipation of FlexChem, the implementation of dry deposition has changed in v10-01h compared to previous versions: All dry deposition calculations are now done as part of turbulence (in the non-local PBL scheme, or before applying the full PBL mixing if this option is selected). Also, all dry deposition frequencies are now calculated over the same deposition height (level 1 for non-local PBL, entire PBL for full mixing scheme).
- In other words, the PARANOX loss rates for O3 (and HNO3) are now calculated based on surface concentrations, and then applied immediately afterwards in the non-local PBL scheme. In your implementation in v9-02, the PARANOX dry deposition rates were calculated (and applied) over the entire PBL height, and then applied in chemistry (e.g. passed to the chemical solver via calcrate.F). The new version now also includes HNO3 deposition from PARANOX.
- Do you think these changes may explain the differences? And is there anything that should be changed?
--Melissa Sulprizio 13:15, 27 March 2015 (EDT)
Bug fixes for the PARANOX HEMCO extension
These fixes were validated with the 1-month benchmark simulation v10-01i and approved on Approved 01 May 2015.
Christoph Keller found two bugs in HEMCO/Extensions/hcox_paranox_mod.F:
- 1. Bug fix in the calculation of the current date SZA
- In routine PARANOX_LUT change:
VARS(5) = ExtState%SUNCOSmid%Arr%Val(I,J)
VARS(5) = ASIND( ExtState%SUNCOSmid%Arr%Val(I,J) )
- 2. Bug fix in calculation of H2O ambient air concentration
- Christoph Keller wrote:
- The relative humidity was treated as kg H2O/kg air, whereas in reality it is g H2O/kg air. The units are wrong in gigc_state_met_mod.F90, which is what confused me. I did a one-day simulation with the updated code, and the ozone production efficiency now looks basically the same as in the version that Chris Holmes provided to us.
- To add just the H2O fix, you need to replace the calculation of variable H2O as follows:
- ! H2O, molec/cm3. Get from specific humidity, which is in kg/kg. - ! H2O = CSPEC(JLOOP,IH2O) - H2O = ExtState%SPHU%Arr%Val(I,J,1) * 1.e3_sp & - * ExtState%AIR%Arr%Val(I,J,1) / MWH2O & - * HcoState%Phys%Avgdr / 1e6_sp + ! H2O, molec/cm3. Get from specific humidity, which is in g/kg. + H2O = ExtState%SPHU%Arr%Val(I,J,1) / 1.0e3_sp * DENS & + * HcoState%Phys%AIRMW / MWH2O
- 3. Fix for setting option in the HEMCO configuration file
- The 1-month benchmark v10-01h revealed that ship emissions weren't being read into HEMCO. PARANOX was still called, so this resulted in a large decrease in O3 over the oceans. It turns out the order of the logical switches in the HEMCO configuration file was causing this error. When NEI2011_SHIP was listed before SHIP, HEMCO automatically set SHIP to NEI2011_SHIP. To resolve this issue, Christoph Keller modified HEMCO so that routine GetExtOpt searches for the option name that exactly matches the desired option.
- 4. Fix SUNCOS values stores in the HEMCO restart file
- The PARANOX_SUNCOS values saved to the HEMCO restart file were one hour off, which resulted in the following error in PARANOX:
!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! HEMCO ERROR: LUT error: Fracnox should be between 0 and 1! ERROR LOCATION: PARANOX_LUT !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
- Christoph Keller updated HEMCO/Extensions/hcox_paranox_mod.F90 to save the correct historic SUNCOS values to the HEMCO restart file.
--Melissa Sulprizio 17:34, 20 April 2015 (EDT)
Update: You can still get this error if the start date of your GEOS-Chem simulation does not correspond with the date of the dat ain the HEMCO restart file. Please see this wiki post for more information on how to work around this issue.
- AEROCOM readme document
- EMEP web page
- ICOADS web page
- Auvray, M., and I. Bey, Long-Range Transport to Europe: Seasonal Variations and Implications for the European Ozone Budget, J. Geophys. Res., 110, D11303, doi: 10.1029/2004JD005503, 2005.
- Chen, G., et al. An investigation of the chemistry of ship emission plumes during ITCT 2002, J. Geophys. Res., 110, D10S90, doi:10.1029/2004JD005236, 2005.
- Corbett, J. J., P. S. Fischbeck, and S. N. Pandis, Global nitrogen and sulfur inventories for oceangoing ships, J. Geophys. Res., 104(D3), 3457–3470, 1999.
- Eyring, V., H. W. Kšhler, J. van Aardenne, and A. Lauer, Emissions from international shipping: 1. The last 50 years, J. Geophys. Res., 110, D17305, doi:10.1029/2004JD005619, 2005a.
- Eyring, V., H. W. Kšhler, A. Lauer, and B. Lemper, Emissions from international shipping: 2. Impact of future technologies on scenarios until 2050, J. Geophys. Res., 110, D17306, doi:10.1029/2004JD005620, 2005b.
- Holmes, C. D., Prather, M. J., and Vinken, G. C. M., The climate impact of ship NOx emissions: an improved estimate accounting for plume chemistry, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 6801-6812, doi:10.5194/acp-14-6801-2014, 2014. Link
- Olivier, J.G.J. and J.J.M. Berdowski, Global emissions sources and sinks. In: Berdowski, J., Guicherit, R. and B.J. Heij (eds.) The Climate System, pp. 33-78. A. A. Balkema Publishers/Swets & Zeitlinger Publishers, Lisse, The Netherlands., 2001
- Vestreng, V., and H. Klein (2002), Emission data reported to UNECE/EMEP: Quality insurance and trend analysis and presentation of Web-Dab, MSC-W Status Rep. 2002:, 101 pp., Norw. Meteorol. Inst., Oslo, Norway. PDF
- Vestreng, V., K. Mareckova, S. Kakareka, A. Malchykhina and T. Kukharchyk. Inventory Review 2007; Emission Data reported to LRTAP Convention and NEC Directive, MSC-W Technical Report 1/07, Norw. Meteorol. Inst., Oslo, Norway, 2007.
- Vinken, G. C. M, K. F. Boersma, D. J. Jacob, and E. W. Meijer, Accounting for non-linear chemistry of ship plumes in the GEOS-Chem global chemistry transport model, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 11, 11707-11722, 2011. Link
- Wang, C., J. J. Corbett, and J. Firestone, Improving Spatial representation of Global Ship Emissions Inventories, Environ. Sci. Technol., 42 (1), 193-199, 2008. Link
--Bob Y. 10:31, 1 December 2011 (EST)
Previous issues that are now resolved
Fix bug in ARCTAS_SHIP_SO2 scale factors
This update was included in GEOS-Chem 12.0.0.
Barron Henderson wrote:
ARCTAS has a base year of 2008, but the implicit AnnualScalar base year is 2000. So scaling from 2008 to another year would require normalizing the AnnualScalar to the base year. Instead of a ScaleID of just 11, it would be 11/19. In the HEMCO_Config.rc files for full-chemistry and aerosol-only simulations, we have this entry:
0 ARCTAS_SHIP_SO2 ... SO2 2008/1/1/0 C xy kg/m2/s SO2 11 10 1
So it is proposed to change this to:
0 ARCTAS_SHIP_SO2 ... SO2 2008/1/1/0 C xy kg/m2/s SO2 11/19 10 1
This update only introduces very small changes into the 1-month benchmark results:
* Mean OH decreased by 0.00041% * O3 STE flux decreased by 0.0007% * Methylchloroform lifetime was unchanged * CH4 lifetime was unchanged
Fix for high values of O3 dry deposition
This update was validated with the 1-month benchmark simulation v10-01h and approved on Approved 01 May 2015.
Tomás Sherwen wrote:
- I am experiencing an issue with the O3 dry deposition fields in V9-2 (GEOS-FP), and note a similar issue has been previously reported within the wiki with a response from Bob Yantosca.
- The O3 deposition fields are extremely high over Shanghai, northern Europe and near Lake Superior. A log plot of this is attached below. Masking for anomalous values, yields a annual deposition within expected bounds (821 Tg / yr). This anomaly is not present for other depositional fields tested (e.g. SO2, iodine tracers, etc). The issue is present within the “off-the-shelf” version i have of v9-2. Standard compile settings have been used, the flags implicated in response on the wiki were not used.
The plot below shows the O3 dry deposition field (2012-07-01 to 2013-07-01, GEOS-FP, V9-2) / Tg O3 / yr (capped at 1000000000.0 for plotting)
Chris Holmes responded:
- I have a solution. The attached patch file applies to v9-02-Public-Release with the parent commit "Clean up use of State_Met in several modules". This supersedes and replaces my previous patch file that is currently posted on the wiki here.
- The wiki description of my changes since v9-02 is still accurate. The substantive difference between this patch and the previous one is that when O3 is lost in sub-grid-scale ship plumes, the loss is calculated by the chemical solver using a 1st order rate coefficient from paranox.
- The problem that Tomás identified occurred because paranox calculates a 1st order loss rate for O3 in ship plumes by diving the flux by the ambient O3 concentration in a grid box. The 1st order loss rate can be quite high when the O3 concentration is low (divide by a small number). Tomás's problem occurs when the O3 concentration then increases after the paranox call and before the 1st order loss is applied, so that a large 1st order loss rate is applied to a large O3 concentration. Because of the timing and order of operations in GC, this can occur when using NLPBL mixing, but not with instant PBL mixing. With the plume O3 loss now calculated inside chemistry, the problem does not occur.
- My patch requires adding the following new reaction to globchem.dat
A 998 0.00E+00 0.0E+00 0 0 S 0.00 0. 0. O3 + = + + + + + + + + + + + + + + +
- I have not used KPP and haven't updated the KPP files.
--Melissa Sulprizio 09:34, 17 July 2014 (EDT)
Outstanding issues not yet resolved
None at this time.